Hayam Wuruk inherited the throne in 1350 at the age of 16, when the patih (prime minister) Gajah Mada was at the height of his career. Under his rule, Majapahit extended its power throughout the Indonesian archipelago.
According to Pararaton and Kidung Sunda, in 1357 King Hayam Wuruk was supposed to be married to Dyah Pitaloka Citraresmi, the princess of Sunda Kingdom. The reasons of this royal engagement was probably a political one, to foster alliance between Majapahit and the Sundanese Kingdom. However in the Bubat incident, the Sunda royal family and their guards was involved in skirmish with Majapahit troops. The planned royal wedding ended in disaster with the death of the princess and the whole of Sunda royal party. The court officials blamed Gajah Mada, because it was his intention to demand submission from Sunda Kingdom that ended in bloodshed.
Several years later Hayam Wuruk wed his cousin, Paduka Sori. In 1365 (or 1287 Saka year), Mpu Prapanca wrote kakawin Nagarakretagama, the old Javanese eulogy for King Hayam Wuruk. The manuscript described Hayam Wuruk's royal excursion around Majapahit realm, villages, holy shrines, vassal kingdoms and territory in East Java.
From Queen Sori, Hayam Wuruk had a daughter Kusumawardhani, a crown princess who later married to a relative, Prince Wikramawardhana. However from a consort concubine Hayam Wuruk had a son, Prince Wirabhumi. After Hayam Wuruks death in 1389, the empire went into chaos and decline caused by the contest of succession between Wikramawardhana and Wirabhumi, which ended in Wirabhumi defeat in Paregreg war. Wikramawardhana succeeded Hayam Wuruk as the King of Majapahit.