Monday, August 8, 2011

The Kingdom Kahuripan and its Founder King Airlangga

Airlangga was the son of the Balinese king Udayana and his Javanese wife princess Mahendradatta (the sister of Dharmawangsa, who was the last king of the old kingdom Mataram).

The kingdom of Mataram was splintered after its unsuccessful attack against the kingdom of Srivijaya. Dharmawangsa paid this failure with his life.

The time after the defeat was a time of bloody struggles for the authority, in which no group or city could take the control for a longer period.

In the years between 1017-1019 Airlangga was living as an hermit and followed the path of asceticism. After this phase, he tried tried to rebuilt the old hinduist kingdom in java. In 1019 he controlled a small area near the Brantas Delta.

Till 1028 he wasn´t able to lead bigger military operations, but in 1035 he achieved one of his goals and founded the hinduist kingdom Kahuripan in east java. He led in an era of Arts and religious tolerance, which can be verifeid by the "Calcutta-inscription".

Also his marriage with the daughter of Sri Sangramu Vijayottunga-Warman (the king of the Buddhist kingdom Srivijaya) could be seen as a sign for his religious tolerance, also it secured the peace between both kingdoms.

The first child of this marriage was a daughter, named Sanggramawijaya. She declined the succession to the throne and prefered the live of a hermit. So the later born two sons of Airlangga would have to follow him on the throne.

His daughter Sanggramawijaya could have been the inspiration for the legend about Dewi Kilisuci. This legend tells of a beautiful woman, who was loved by two kings. One of this kings was Mahesa Suro and had a head of a buffalo, the king was named Lembu Suro with the head of a cow.

She tried to get rid of both of them. Therefore she assigned a task for both of them. One should built up a foutain, which smells lovely and one should built a fountain that smells ugly.

Both should proof their work, by taking a bath in their fountain. When the kings tried to accomplish their tasks and took a bath in the fountains, Dewi Kilisuci ordered to bury them with stones in the fountains.

But before they died, they cursed the homeland of Dewi Kilisuci (Blitar and Kediri). Because of this legend, the people of the region still doing oblations to prevent this curse.

Airlangga defeated his last opponent, by provoking a riot against him. This battle-technique he learned from a man namen Kautilya, who was a master in the art of statecraft . He was now controlling an area from Pasuruan in the east to Madiun in the West.

He accepted the Buddhism as well as the Hinduism and simultaneously cut curtailed the power of the priests, by transferring their estates to his property.

The spirit of tolerance in todays indonesia, also has its source in this early time of history and is a main part of the indonesian culture.

In 1035 the poet laureate Mpu Kanwa created the epic Arjuna Wiwaha (Arijunavivaha), which was derive from the Mahabarata and has still an important role in todays Indonesia.

The hero Arjuna was the poetic image of Arilangga. Arjuna was the reincarnated Hindu god Vishnu, perhaps this reference was also made to Airlangga.

Also a on an irrigation system, which ist partly still in use today was iniciated by Airlangga. His reign was a mostly peaceful phase of arts and trading.

In the 1042 (or 1045, the sources differ in this), Airlangga passed the power to his two sons and lived again as a hermit. Two prevent a struggle about the power he split the kingdom between his sons. Airlangga died in the year 1049.

The kingdoms of Jangala and Kediri

The kingdoms of Airlanggas sons were named Kediri (Kedari) and Janggala. Kediri was in the west and Janggala in the east of the former kingdom of Mataram.

Nearly nothing is known about the Kingom of Janggala. It was located near Gedangan Sidoarjo (near to todays Surabaya) and its first two rajas were Jayanegara and his successor Wajadrawa.

Already fifty years after the founding of the two kingdoms, they were reunited by Kameswara, the raja of Kediri, in 1117, when he married the princess Dewi Kirana, who was a daughter of Wajadrawa. This was the end of the kingdom Janggala.

Kediri existed from 1045 to 1220. It was also named Panjali or Dhaha. Not much is known about the early history, but it is known that it was reunited with Janggala in under the rule of Kameswara (1116-1136) by the marriage with a princess from Janggala.

Kediri evolved to one of the biggest kingdoms of its time on java. The literary works Kakawin Smaradahana (Author Mpu Djarmaja), kakawin Lubdaka and Wertasancaya (author of both was Mpu Tanakung) were written in the prime of Kediris evolvement.

The most famous king of Kediri was Raja Jayabaya (1135-1159), who was also known as a seer or mystic in his time. He should have forseen the arriving of the dutch, as well as the Japanese occupation and the final independence of Indonesia.

During his reign Kediri evolved by his strong naval force to territories in Kalimantan and to the kingdom of Ternate on Sulawesi and received tributes from these areas.

The epic tale Kakawin Bharatayuddha (a Javanese version of the hindu epic Mahabarata) was written during the regin of Jayabaya. It was written by Mph Sedah and Mpu Panuluh and was finished in 1157.

The last king of Kediri was Kertajaya (1185-1222), who had a conflict with his own priest, because he wants to declare himself as a god.

Political riots in the area of Tumapel (today Malang) began and marked the end of the kingdom Kediri. A famous legend tells from this incidents at the end of the kingdom Kedri and the arising of its successor, the kingdom of Singhasari and it ruler Ken Arok.

According to this legend Ken Arok was an orphan, who was raised by a thief, named Lembong. He lived in the Kediri, which was ruled by Kertajaya in this time.

The young Ken Arok was a gambler and skilled thief and became a soldier of the regent of the region Tumapal, who was named Tunggul Ametung.

This regent had a extraordinary beautiful wife, named Ken Dedes, who had to marry him by force. When Ken Arok saw her the first time, he knew that he wanted to make her to his wife, whatever it may take.

He went to a master of blacksmithy, named Mpu Gandring and ask him to make a holy keris, which should help him by his undertaking.

The art of forming a Keris takes a lot of time and many rituals, but Ken Arok did not want to wait, especially because Ken Dedes got pregnant, which enraged him a lot and in his rage, he killed Mpu Gandring and took the keris.

Mpu Gandrig put a curse on him with his last breath. He and all his offsprings should be killed by the keris, which Ken Arok just took.

Ken Arok went back to the court of Tunggul Ametung and showed his Keris to a guard, called Kebo Ijo, who was very vain.

Kebo Ijo asked to lent the keris for one night and Ken Arok accepted his bid. But he secrectly he took his keris back in the night, killed Tunggul Ametung with and blamed Kebo Ijo for the bloody deed.

Before Kebo Ijo could defend himself Ken Arok killed him also and took the place of Tunggul Ametung as well as his wife Ken Dedes.

The priests supported Ken Aroks ambition to overthrow Kertajaya and in 1222 he was successful after he defeated the army of Kertajaya. This was the beginning of the Kingdom Singhasari.

But shortly after it, the curse of Mpu Gandring should become true and he got killed with Mpu Gandrings Kereis, by his stepson Anusapati, who was the child of Ken Dedes and Tunggul Ametung.

Anusapti himself got killed shortly after his fatuity, by Paniju Tohjaya, who was a son of Ken Arok and one of his concubines, named Ken Umang. Also this bloody deed was done with the cursed keris.
The rulers of Kediri

Sri Jayawarsa (1104-1115)
Kameswara I (1116-1135)
Sri Jayabaya (1135-1159)
Sarwaswara (1159-1161)
Aryaswara (1171-1174)
Gandra (1181)
Kameswara II (1182-1185)
Kertajaya (1185-1222)

The kingdom of Singhasari

Ken Arok was the first Raja of the Kingdom Singhasari and the founder of the Rajasa Dynasty. The area of Singhasari was located in the region of todays Malang (East Java).

He overthrew the last Raja of the former kingdom Kediri, named Kertajaya, by provoking riots against him. He was supported by the brahmans, because their power and influence were constrained by Kertajaya.

The royal title ”Sri Ranggah Rajasa Bhatara Amurwabhumi” was granted to Ken Arok. He also tried to represent himself as the son of Shiva. He ruled from 1222 to 1227.

According to the legend he was killed by his stepson Anisapati after he found out, that Ken Arok once killed his father Tunggul Ametung, who was a regent in the former kingdom Kediri.

Anusapati (1227 – 1248) was killed in 1248 by Panji Tohjaya, a son of Ken Arok and one of his concubines, named Ken Umang, but Panji Tohjaya didn´t even rule a year, when he was overthrown by riots, which were provoked by his cousin Ranggawuni (also called Wisnuwardhana).

Ranggawuni (or Wisnuwardhana) tried to stop the infighting of the stirps, by marrying a princess of the former kingdo mof Kediri, also he ceded a part of his power to his cousin Mahesa Cempaka.

In 1254 his son Kartanegara (1268 – 1292) followed him on the throne. Kartanegara feared the schism of java, because the whole malayan region was dominated by conflicts and disunity in this time.

Another thread were mongolian military forces of Kublai Khan, who tried to expand his power to Java. So Kartanegara invested all his efforts to expand the influence of his kingdom (to Malayu in South Sumatra in 1275), to regain political and religious unity in the region.

The political intention is also proven by an Sanskrit inscription from 1289, which shows Kartanegara as a wrathful Aksobhya Buddha. Also it is written, that Kartanegara reunited Java.

The epic tale Nagarakertagama is glorifying Kartanegara as a prudent follower of Buddhism who had internalized the teaching of Buddhism and asceticism and was well versed in philosophy and science.

Also Kartanegara should have been the first King, who had a vision of a united Java.

In 1289 an emissary of Kublai Khan arrived on Java and demanded the submission of the Javanese kings to Kublai Khan. Kartanegara answered his demands by torturing and killing him.

After this, Kublai Khan organised a punitive expedition, which arrived on Java in 1292. But at this time Kartanegara was already killed by Jayakatwang, who the son in law of Ranggawauni.

The reign of Jayakatwang didn´t last long. Shortly after his accession to the throne he was overthrown by Raden Wijaya, who was the son in law of Kartanegara (later known as Kertarajasa) and ruled from 1293-1309.

Kertarajasa used the arriving Mongolian punivitve expedtion to get into power and dispersed them shortly after he reached his goal. Kertarajasa was the first king of the new kingdom Majapahit.
The rulers of Singhasari


Ken Arok 1222 - 1227
Anusapati 1227 - 1248
Panji Tohjaya 1248
Wisnuwardhana 1248 - 1268
Kertanegara 1268 – 1292

The kindgom of Majapahit

After Jayakatwang killed Kartanegara and came to power himself the true heir Raden Wijaya had to retreat to Majapahit on the island of Madura.

Nearly at the same time the Kublai Khans punitive expedition arrived on java. The punitive should consisted at its departure of 1,000 ships and about 20,000 soldiers.

But when those travelers tried to reach a harbor on their way to java, they were refused to enter the harbor, so they couldn´t renew their supplies and arrived on java in a weakened and demoralised condition.

Raden Wijaya negotiated an alliance with the Mongolian invaders and promised them the suzerainty about java.

On march, the 15th 1293 the allied forces attacked te city of Daha (in the former kingdom of Kediri) and only after five days they defeated the troops and overthrew Jayakatwang. The losses of the defenders were more then 5,000.

Raden Wijaya ostensibly went back to Majapahit, while the Mongolian soldiers celebrated their victory, but in a sneak attack in the back of the Mongolian they were defeated by Raden Wijaya. Many of them were killed, other retreated in panic to their ships and left Java.

Seven months later in November 1293, he ascended the throne and founded the kingdom of Majapahit. He also was granted the title ”Kertarajasa Jayawardhana ”. The name Majapahit is derived from the acrid leaves of the maja tree (pahit = acrid).

The records of Nagarakertagama, who was the court scribe of Raden Wijaya and other recordings of this time are telling, that Raden Wijaya (also called Kertarajasa Jayawardhana) married the four daughters of Kartanegara. His son was an offspring of him and the oldest daughter Dyah Dewi Tribhuwanshwari. He was called Jayanagara.

After Raden Wijayas death in 1309 he followed him on the throne. In his reign several riots broke out, which were partly initiated by the former advisors of his father (Sora, Nambi and Kuti).

After one riot, which was led by Kuti, he had to retreat from his palace together with his minister Gajah Mada. But Kuti could not hold his position for long and Jayanagara was able to return to his palace.

He was killed in 1328. Rumors allege, that his minister Gajah Mada killed him. With his death the kingdom had no male heir apparent, instead the oldest sister of Jayanagara, named Tribhuwana Wijayatungga Dewi (her former name was Sri Gitarja) followed him on the throne. She ruled till 1350.

In 1331 she appointed Gajah Mada to prime minister, he followed Mpu Naga in this position, after he successful defeated the Sadeng rebels in the area of Besuki.

It is said, that Gajah Mada swore, that he would not eat any spiced meals till the whole area of Java would be part of Majapahit.

1347 the majapahit general Adit Jayawarman conquered parts of the kingdom Srivijaya on Sumatra and also Jambi. After this Tribhuwana Wijayatungga appointed him as the regent about the conquered areas.

In 1350 the son of Tribhuwana Wijayatungga, named Hayam Wuruk (also called Rajasanagara) was the new king of Majapahit. He was born in 1334.

During his reign, as well as his mothers leadership, Gaja had a great influence to all decisions. Gajah Mada was prime minister and also commander-in-chief.

Gajah Mada is still one of the gratest heros in indonesia and regarded and am unifier of Indonesia. Till his death in 1364 he was able to expand the influence of the kingdom Majapahit beyond the borders of todays Indonesia.

The influence about the area, which was called Dwipantara was reaching from Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi and parts of Malaysia to the Philippines and Timor (at which the last one is not for sure).

In the reign of Hayam Wuruk many literary works were written. Among oher, the famous chronicle ”Nagara Kertagama” by Panpanca (1135-1380), in which the diplomatic connections of the kingdom Majapahit are described.

Also Prancapa tells in his work, that the Raja Hayam Wuruk never staid long in his palace. During his reign he traveled constantly across his kingdom, to collect tributes, to secure the loyalty of local regents but also to speak with village elders and holy man.

By this many of his inferiors came in contact with the person, who ruled them and were their living connection to the divine world.

Also several code of law originated from this era. Beside other the ”Kutaramanwa”, the ”Manawa Dharma Sastra” and the ”Adigama ” can be traced back to this time.

A passage of the ”Kakawin Sutasoma” is still important in the present Indonesia. It reads as follows: ”Bhinneka Tunggal” Ika”, which means ”Unity in diversity”. This phrase was also use by Sukarno.

In 1377 Majapahit invaded Palembang, the capital city of the kingdom Srivijaya on Sumatra. The existence of Srivijaya, which was already weakened by attacks of the Indian Chola-Realm, ended with the occupation of Palembang.

The wife of Hayam Wuruk, was Paduka Sari (or Parameswari). In 1351 he also intended to marry a princess of the kingdom Panjajaran, which is located in west java.

The raja of Panjajaran agreed to the marriage provided that his area would persist under his rule, but Gajah Mada demanded to consummate the marriage without any conditions.

The ruler of Panjajaran denied the demand of Gajah Mada. As a consequence of his denial Gajah Mada instructed his soldiers to kill the ruler of Panjajaran and may of his followers on the intended wedding day.

This incident is known today as the Perang (= war) Bubat. But it took one more year, till Panjajaran got part of Majapahit.

Hayam Wuruk died in 1389 and left two offspring. A daughter, named Kusumawardhani and a Son, called Wardhani.

But because his son was a offspring between him and a concubine, he didn´t was considered as a successor, instead of that, Wikramawardhana the husband of Kusumawardhani became the new Raja of Majapahit.

From 1401 to 1406 it came to clashes between Wardhani and Wikramawardhana. At the End of the conflict Wardhani was executed by Wikrawardhana, but the conflict led in the decay of the kingdom Majapahit.

After the conflict it consisted just of a of an area in East Java. Also the stability of Majaphit was tarnished and in the following years it came to continuously clashes.

The successor after the death of Wikramawardhana in 1428 was his daughter Suhita, who ruled until 1447. After Suhita followed Ketrrawijaya (also called Bawijaya I.), who was murdered by his successor Rajasawardhana in 1451.

Under the reign of Rajasawardhana the administrative center of Majapahit was moved from the city Majapahit to Kahuripan (in the area of the former kingdom Kediri).

From 1456 to 1466 Giriswardhana ruled the kingdom of Majapahit. His successor in 1466 was Suraphawabawa, which was overthrown by Bhre Kertabumi (also known as Brawijaya V.) two years later.

Suraphawabawa retreated to the kingdom of Tumapel, which he ruled from 1468 to 1470. Till 1470 he ruled 4 years in Dhaha in the area of the former kingdom Kediri.

Bhre Kertabumi ruled from 1468 to 1478 in Majapahit. He was the son of Rajasawardhana. He married a Muslim princess, named Anarawati from the Kingdom Champa, which is located the area of Vietnam.

In 1478 the son of Suraphawabawa, called Giridrawardhana , attacked Majapahit and this tiem Brawijaya V. had to retreat. He fled to Demak, where his son Raden Patah later founded the kingdom of Demak.

Till 1486 Kediri was the capital of Majaphit, but in this time many Hindu-Priests and artists fled to Bali, because the Islam was getting more and more influence on Java and many Rajas accepted the new faith and turned their realms in sultanates.

The kingdom of Majaphit vanished in 1527, after it was conquered by Raden Patah, who ruled in the sultanate Demak.
Rulers of Majapahit

Raden Wijaya, oder auch Kertarajasa Jayawardhana) (1293 - 1309)
Kalagamet, oder auch Sri Jayanagara) (1309 - 1328)
Sri Gitarja, oder auch Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi) (1328 - 1350)
Hayam Wuruk, oder auch Sri Rajasanagara (1350 - 1389)
Wikramawardhana (1389 - 1429)
Suhita (1429 - 1447)
Kertawijaya, oder auch Brawijaya I (1447 - 1451)
Rajasawardhana oder auch Brawijaya II (1451 - 1453)
Purwawisesa oder Girishawardhana, bzw. Brawijaya III (1456 - 1466)
Pandanalas, oder Suraprabhawa, bzw. Brawijaya IV (1466 - 1468)
Kertabumi, oder auch Brawijaya V (1468 - 1478)
Girindrawardhana oder Brawijaya VI (1478 - 1498)


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